What is Kratom? Read The Ultimate Kratom Guide

Kratom leaf

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Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) is a tropical tree in the coffee family that grows in South Asia in countries like Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Myanmar, and Papua New Guinea. Historically, Kratom effects were sought after for relieving pain, providing energy, improving mood, and increasing physical stamina. Kratom leaves are often chewed, consumed as a dried powder, or used in extract form. Kratom contains over 40 active compounds, with the primary alkaloids of focus having opioid effects and stimulant effects. The main alkaloid in Kratom known for its opioid activity is mitragynine. Kratom also contains 7-hydroxymitragynine in smaller amounts, which is significantly more potent than mitragynine.

Mitragynine Chemical Structure
Mitragynine Chemical Structure
7-hydroxymitragynine Chemical Structure
7-hydroxymitragynine Chemical Structure

Kratom’s Legal Status:

Kratom is not currently listed as a controlled substance in the USA. Several US states have banned the Kratom, inclusive of Alabama, Arkansas, Indiana, Tennessee, Vermont, and Washington, D.C.. It is possible that different states may additionally put restriction using this substance in coming future.

In this Kratom Guide, we will review Kratom effects on pain, anxiety, depression, mood, and opioid withdrawal. We will also discuss Kratom’s legal status.

Since research on Kratom is limited, this Kratom overview will draw largely from its historical usage and more current anecdotal evidence due to the increase in Kratom popularity in the USA and worldwide. The subjective reviews from individuals who buy Kratom suggest that lower doses produce more stimulatory effects, and higher doses produce more sedative and pain relieving effects. The impact of Kratom on anxiety, mood, and depression can be noticed at lower and higher doses, depending on the individual’s reaction.

Many use the substance each day to cope with issues like depression and anxiety or use it numerous times as per the research facts. Although no formal psychiatric assessments of the members have been done, and their use of the substance to cope with depression, these kratom benefits are based totally at the subjective reviews of the participants; the depression in people isn’t always primarily based on a medical evaluation.

Depressed mood represents a usual and variable level in lots of people with and without psychiatric diagnoses.  There is quite a difference in the type, variety, and intensity of the symptoms in a person with a proper analysis of depressive sickness and someone who is experiencing the normal ups and downs of existence.

The Difference Between Kratom Strains:

Distinctive strains of Kratom come from different areas of Southeast Asia. The most popular Kratom strains are:

  • Green Vein Kratom
    • Green vein Kratom strains are said to be more stimulating, but still possess sedative properties in high doses.
    • The strongest and highest quality (highest average alkaloid content) green vein Kratom is often referred to as “Maeng Da,” which means “Pimp” when directly translated from Thai.
  • White Vein Kratom
    • White vein Kratom strains are often suggested to have effects that are similar to green vein Kratom strains, in that they are more stimulating than red vein Kratom strains.
  • Red Vein Kratom
    • Red vein Kratom strains are most popular for their more potent sedative and pain relieving effects, with fewer stimulating effects. Many individuals appear to use red vein Kratom to aid in sleep since it is not as stimulating. Red vein strains are also suggested to the best Kratom for anxiety.

It is important to note that there are many names given to different Kratom strains from both green, white, and red varieties. Many times these names are in reference to the source of the Kratom (country of origin), and other times these names are assigned to strains as more of a novelty or “branding” element.

For the most part, it is only important to differentiate Kratom strains based on whether they are green vein, white vein, or red vein. This will be the best indicator of the effects. The one main exception are “Maeng Da” varieties which are simply more potent on average.

How Kratom is Used:

Kratom is often consumed in capsules, powdered leaf, and extracts. Extracts may be substantially stronger than powders or capsules, due to a higher concentration of active alkaloids.

Kratom Use

Based on a recent survey carried out on more than 8,000 individuals, it was noted that a common dosage of Kratom to get desired results was 5 grams of powder taken up to three times daily. Some people report using more or less, depending on their reaction and on their desired effects.

The U.S. Food and Drug administration (FDA) has not approved Kratom or its active compounds for any medical indication. Presently, people buy kratom powder because is considered to be a natural alternative to some prescription medications. Consequently, its use isn’t always regulated by FDA.

ELV Bioscience does not make any recommendations for Kratom use. It is always advisable to consult with a licensed healthcare professional before consuming Kratom or any other substance.

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REFERENCES:

White, CM (1 March 2018). “Pharmacologic and clinical assessment of kratom”. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy. 75 (5): 261–267. doi:10.2146/ajhp161035. PMID 29255059.

Adkins, Jessica E.; Edward W. Boyer; Christopher R. McCurdy (2011-05-01). “Mitragyna speciosa, a psychoactive tree from Southeast Asia with opioid activity”. Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry. 11 (9): 1165–75. doi:10.2174/156802611795371305. PMID 21050173.

“Kratom profile (chemistry, effects, other names, origin, mode of use, other names, medical use, control status)”. Page last updated 8 January 2015: European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. Retrieved 12 September 2016.

Warner ML, Kaufman NC, Grundmann O (2016). “The pharmacology and toxicology of kratom: from traditional herb to drug of abuse”. Int. J. Legal Med. (Review). 130 (1): 127–38. doi:10.1007/s00414-015-1279-y. PMID 26511390.

Cinosi, E; Martinotti, G; Simonato, P; Singh, D; Demetrovics, Z; Roman-Urrestarazu, A; Bersani, F. S; Vicknasingam, B; Piazzon, G; Li, J. H; Yu, W. J; Kapitány-Fövény, M; Farkas, J; Di Giannantonio, M; Corazza, O (2015). “Following “the Roots” of Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa): The Evolution of an Enhancer from a Traditional Use to Increase Work and Productivity in Southeast Asia to a Recreational Psychoactive Drug in Western Countries”. BioMed Research International. 2015: 1–11. doi:10.1155/2015/968786. PMC 4657101. PMID 26640804.

White CM (2017). “Pharmacologic and clinical assessment of kratom”. Am J Health Syst Pharm (Review). 75 (5): 261–267. doi:10.2146/ajhp161035. PMID 29255059.

Hassan, Z; Muzaimi, M; Navaratnam, V; Yusoff, N. H; Suhaimi, F. W; Vadivelu, R; Vicknasingam, B. K; Amato, D; von Hörsten, S; Ismail, N. I; Jayabalan, N; Hazim, A. I; Mansor, S. M; Müller, C. P (2013). “From Kratom to mitragynine and its derivatives: Physiological and behavioural effects related to use, abuse, and addiction”. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews. 37 (2): 138–51. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2012.11.012. PMID 23206666.

Beckett, Jaclyn R. (2014). “Non-Analgesic CNS Effects”. In Raffa, Robert B. (ed.). Kratom and other mitragynines : the chemistry & pharmacology of opioids from. CRC Press. pp. 195–204. ISBN 9781482225181.

Eisenman, Sasha W. (2014). “Chapter 5. The Botany of Mitragyna speciosa (Korth.) Havil. and Related Species”. In Raffa, Robert B. (ed.). Kratom and Other Mitragynines: The Chemistry and Pharmacology of Opioids from a Non-Opium. CRC Press. pp. 57–76. ISBN 978-1-4822-2519-8.

Singh, Darshan; Narayanan, Suresh; Vicknasingam, Balasingam (September 2016). “Traditional and non-traditional uses of Mitragynine (Kratom): A survey of the literature”. Brain Research Bulletin. 126 (Pt 1): 41–46. doi:10.1016/j.brainresbull.2016.05.004. PMID 27178014.

Takayama, Hiromitsu; et al. (2002). “Studies on the Synthesis and Opioid Agonistic Activities of Mitragynine-Related Indole Alkaloids: Discovery of Opioid Agonists Structurally Different from Other Opioid Ligands”. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 45 (9): 1949–56. doi:10.1021/jm010576e. PMID 11960505.

Suhaimi FW, Yusoff NH, Hassan R, Mansor SM, Navaratnam V, Müller CP, Hassan Z (2016). “Neurobiology of Kratom and its main alkaloid mitragynine”. Brain Res Bull. Mar 25 (Pt 1): 29–40. doi:10.1016/j.brainresbull.2016.03.015. PMID 27018165.

Prozialeck, WC; Jivan, JK; Andurkar, SV (2012). “Pharmacology of kratom: an emerging botanical agent with stimulant, analgesic, and opioid-like effects”. The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association. 112 (12): 792–99. PMID 23212430.

Takayama H, Ishikawa H, Kurihara M, Kitajima M, Aimi N, Ponglux D, Koyama F, Matsumoto K, Moriyama T, Yamamoto LT, Watanabe K, Murayama T, Horie S (2002). “Studies on the synthesis and opioid agonistic activities of mitragynine-related indole alkaloids: discovery of opioid agonists structurally different from other opioid ligands”. J. Med. Chem. 45 (9): 1949–56. doi:10.1021/jm010576e. PMID 11960505.

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