What Are Peptides? A Comprehensive Peptide Guide
What Are Peptides?
A peptide is a molecule consisting of two or more peptide bonded amino acids. An amino acid’s overall structure is R-CH(NH2)COOH.
How Are Peptides Formed?
Every amino acid is a monomer forming a peptide polymer chain with other amino acids when one amino acid’s carboxyl group (- COOH) responds with another amino acid’s amino group (- NH2), shaping a covalent bond between the amino acid deposits and discharging a water molecule.
What To Know About Peptides?
- A peptide is a polymer that is made by connecting subunits of amino acid.
- A peptide particle can be intrinsically active on its own or it can exist as a subunit of a larger peptide molecule.
- Proteins are fundamentally enormous peptides, regularly made up of various subunits of peptides.
- In chemistry, biology, and medicine, peptides are necessary since they are basic blocks of hormones, toxins, proteins, chemicals, enzymes, cells, and body tissues.
Peptides are most often regulators of other molecule’s activity (e.g., proteins). This regulation occurs when a peptide molecule interacts with a target. For example, peptides can modulate hormonal activity, while other peptides can possess antibiotic activity. Organisms synthesize some peptides directly, while others are the product of protein hydrolysis (degradation). Some of the peptides originated by hydrolysis have a determined function, while others are just further degraded to smaller units.
What Do Peptides Do?
Peptides are molecules of biological and medical significance. They occur naturally within organisms and, when administered exogenously as lab-synthesized compounds, they can exert pharmacological activity. Peptides act as cell and tissue, hormone, toxin, antibiotic, and enzyme structural components. Examples of peptides include glutathione (stimulates tissue growth), melittin (honey bee venom), the pancreatic hormone insulin, hormone oxytocin, and glucagon (a hyperglycemic factor). Other peptides include Human Growth Hormone (HGH) which consists of 191 amino acids (191aa) bonded in a particular 3-dimensional structure.
Which Kind of Peptides Are Prohibited?
Two kinds of peptides come under Schedule 2 (S2) prohibited substances on the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) Prohibited List, United States Anti-Doping Agency (USADA) Prohibited List, and by the Australian Sports Anti-Doping Authority. Professional athletes are prohibited from using peptide hormones (i.e. growth hormone) and growth hormone secretagogue peptides, because the chemicals act as performance enhancers. Examples of prohibited peptides include growth hormone, and peptides that boost blood oxygenation such as Erythropoietin (EPO). The drugs are prohibited not only because they can offer an unfair benefit to athletes over their competition, but also because their use can potentially increase several health risk factors.
There are various growth hormone-releasing peptides in a synthetic form that are used for multiple purposes. We hope that this Peptide guide has assisted in a better understanding of what peptides are and how some of the most popular peptides work.
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